The National Register of Historic Places is our country's official list of historic buildings, structures, sites, objects, and districts worthy of preservation. The National Register provides formal recognition of a property's architectural, historical, or archaeological significance. It also identifies historic properties for planning purposes, and insures that these properties will be considered in the planning of state or federally assisted projects. National Register listing encourages preservation of historic properties through public awareness, federal and state tax incentives, and grants. Listing in the National Register does not place obligations or restrictions on the use, treatment, transfer, or disposition of private property.
Brier Creek Battlefield- Screven County
Brier Creek Battlefield was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on January 27, 2020. The nomination was sponsored by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Historic Preservation Division, and nomination materials were prepared by Scott Butler, Senior Archaeologist and Vice President at Brockington and Associates.
Brier Creek Battlefield is a historic district encompassing 2,686 acres within the state-owned Tuckahoe Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Screven County, Georgia. Located on a natural peninsula formed by the confluence of Brier Creek and the Savannah River, Brier Creek Battlefield features relatively low and flat topography with vegetation that consists of mature stands of planted loblolly pine trees actively managed for silviculture. Anhydric (dry) soils in the peninsula are surrounded by wet, swampy cypress forests which border Brier Creek and the Savannah River.
In 1778, the British military high command planned to win the Revolutionary War in America by conquering the South. The British seized the city of Savannah in December 1778 with only minor losses and made plans to push an occupying force inland to take control of the upcountry around Augusta. When a British expeditionary force failed to capture Augusta in January 1779, they began retreating slowly back to Savannah, with American forces following close behind. The British burned Miller’s Bridge across Brier Creek as they retreated, slowing the American pursuit. The Americans set up camp on the north side of the creek on February 26, 1779. It was here that the British would attack the American encampment on March 3, resulting in a major American defeat. Brier Creek Battlefield is significant at the state level under Criterion A, in the area of military history, due to its association with the American Revolutionary War (1776-1781), an event which made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of history. The Battle of Brier Creek is one of the few major battles that occurred in Georgia during the Revolutionary War. The battlefield was first occupied by General John Ashe’s American army on February 26, 1779. The battle occurred on March 3, 1779, and the victorious British army, along with surviving American prisoners, vacated the area on March 4, 1779. The overwhelming American defeat firmly established British military control of the Georgia side of the Savannah River, between Savannah and Augusta. General William Moultrie of the South Carolina militia later stated that the American defeat at Brier Creek was so disastrous that it extended the war by at least a year, and that without this British victory, the subsequent 1780 British invasion and capture of South Carolina would likely never have happened.
The Brier Creek Battlefield is also significant at the state level under Criterion D in the area of historic archeology. As an American defeat, historians and archeologists have largely neglected study of the Battle of Brier Creek. Archeological investigations have documented important combat zones, bivouac areas, and battlefield landscape features, and the potential for significant further research. Additional investigation is necessary to fully delineate the locations of American picket posts, British main line, American main line, American camps, building sites, fields, and possible gravesites. Due to investigations that indicate the location of the Miller farm and the Savannah-Augusta Road, additional study of Brier Creek Battlefield is likely to yield information in the areas of agriculture and transportation.
Edmund and Mildred Abrahams Raised Tybee Cottage- Chatham County
The Edmund and Mildred Abrahams Raised Tybee Cottage was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on January 27, 2020. The property is located at 4 8th Street on Tybee Island (Chatham County), on a rectangular-shaped portion of an original beach lot extending from Butler Avenue to the beach front. The property owner sponsored the nomination, and Quatrefoil Consulting prepared the nomination materials.
Constructed between 1934 and 1936, the two-story, wood-frame beach house, raised a full story on trussed wood posts, features a cross-gable roof with widely overhanging eaves, exposed rafter ends, and clapboard siding. The main living space is located on the second floor (or “raised” level) and features a semi-recessed porch on the south, main elevation that partially wraps around the east elevation. The informal interior plan features a large common room flanked by a kitchen and dining room on the east side, two smaller bedrooms with a shared bathroom on the west side, and a master bedroom addition on the north side. The ground floor includes two automobile stalls set between a grid of trussed wood posts. Servants’ quarters and bath/changing rooms are located along the west and north perimeter walls, respectively.
The Edmund and Mildred Abrahams Raised Tybee Cottage is significant as a good example of the seasonal beach houses built for middle-class families on Tybee Island during its heyday as one of the most popular summer beach resorts along the south Atlantic coast (c.1925-1950). The opening of Tybee Road in 1923, a causeway that linked the island with Savannah, fueled the demand for oceanfront property and unprecedented residential development that defines the island’s character even today. The Edmund and Mildred Abrahams Raised Tybee Cottage is representative of the recreational residential development on Tybee Island and contributes to broad patterns of American history by its correlation to the rise of middle-class recreational travel, which occurred as a result of the expansion in automobile ownership in the early 20th century.
The Edmund and Mildred Abrahams Raised Tybee Cottage, designed by Morton H. Levy of the Savannah-based architectural firm Levy and Clark, is additionally significant in the area of architecture as an excellent and intact example of the Raised Tybee Cottage house type according to the context Raised Tybee Cottages in Tybee Island, Georgia draft MPDF. This important local house type is unique to Tybee Island following the completion of the Tybee Road. The cottages were designed to accommodate auto storage, servants’ quarters, and bath/changing rooms on the ground level, with the main living quarters raised a full story above.
Sandersville High School- Washington County
Sandersville High School was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on December 9, 2019. The school is located at 514 North Harris Street on a 20-acre lot in a residential area in Sandersville, the county seat of Washington County, in central Georgia. The nomination is sponsored by the Washington County Board of Commissioners and the Washington County Historical Society. Nomination materials were prepared by a board member of the Sandersville School Building Authority, the property owner.
The school complex consists of the original Public Works Administration-funded 1939 school building with two non-historic additions attached by corridors. Additionally, the property includes a 1959 cafeteria, a historic baseball field, and a 1943-1945 agriculture and cannery building that has been substantially altered and no longer retains historic integrity. Constructed in several phases to accommodate growing student enrollment and changing educational needs in Sandersville and Washington County, Sandersville High School was established in 1939 as a consolidated school to house students in grades 1-11 from the northern half of the county. Sandersville High School is significant in the area of education as a good, intact example of a rural, consolidated public school building. According to Public Elementary and Secondary Schools in Georgia, 1868-1971, a statewide context, a consolidated public school is an example of the type of school built in response to concerns about the state of education in Georgia in the early 20th century. Better roads and the growing use of the automobile made it possible to consolidate several small, rural schools into one larger and improved school. Additionally, various pieces of legislation in Georgia at this time encouraged consolidation of schools by providing state funds for qualified districts. A consolidated public school consisted of several classrooms with cloakrooms, physical education facilities, a library, an auditorium, administrative offices, heating plant facilities, and bathrooms. To accommodate all of these needs, a letter-plan—a footprint in the shape of the letters E, T, H, L, or U—was commonly used. With its intact E-shaped plan and variety of spaces, including classrooms, an auditorium, bathrooms, and administrative offices, Sandersville High School continues to reflect its association with the school consolidation movement of early 20th-century Georgia.
Sandersville High School is also significant in the area of architecture for its association with William J.J. Chase, an Atlanta-based architect, who was notable for designing over 100 schools across Georgia, most during the consolidation period. Chase was noted for his predominant use of the Colonial Revival and Georgian Revival styles featuring symmetrical side wings and a projecting central entryway, which is evident in his design of Sandersville High School. Additional Colonial Revival-style elements, often employed by Chase and present in the Sandersville High School design, include pilasters framing the entryway and supporting a pediment, a domed cupola, and an overall emphasis on symmetry.
Finally, Sandersville High School is significant in the area of social history as its auditorium—the largest in the county—functioned as a community center, drawing in Sandersville residents for community theater productions, concerts, religious services, beauty pageants, and more.
Milner - Walker House- Spalding County
The Milner-Walker House was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on December 19, 2019. The property, which includes the main house and four outbuildings, is located at 708 South Hill Street on three acres just south of downtown Griffin (Spalding County), in an area of mixed residential and commercial development. The property owner sponsored the nomination, and William Inman and Charlie McAnulty, former students in the Georgia State University Heritage Preservation Program, prepared the nomination materials.
Initially constructed c.1867, the Milner-Walker House is a one-and-a-half-story, frame, vernacular Greek Revival-style house. The original main block of the house exhibits a cross-hall plan composed of five primary rooms and a center hallway on the first floor, with four rooms and an attic space on the upper floor. A one-story wing that dates to at least 1925 but is believed to be original extends from the south (rear) façade of the main block. As part of a major renovation in 1933, this wing was expanded to connect to an outbuilding that is believed to be the property’s original smokehouse, which today serves as a laundry room. Porches with simple Greek Revival detailing span the north and west elevations of the house’s main block, accessing exterior doors featuring large multi-light sidelights and transoms. The house exhibits historic double-hung six-over-six windows on the first floor, and four-over-four windows on the upper floor. Walls are plaster throughout the main block, and exhibit historic trim including picture molding, door and window surrounds, and 12-inch baseboards. In addition to the house, the property includes four frame outbuildings, including an animal barn and equipment barn that are known to have existed by 1925, but likely existed in some form by the late 19th century, as well as a c.1905 dairy barn and c.1932 milk house that relate to the property’s use as a dairy after purchase by J. Henry Walker in 1905.
Benjamin M. Milner, a Barnesville businessman, first purchased property in Griffin in 1860, only 17 years after the city’s incorporation. He commissioned Gilman J. Drake, a local builder, to construct for him a cross-hall Greek Revival-style house at what is today 570 South Hill Street. Milner would soon enlist in the Confederate Army, returning to Griffin in 1866. He sold the house at 570 South Hill Street in August of that year and purchased land about two blocks south at what is today 708 South Hill Street, upon which the Miner-Walker House was constructed c.1867. Based on the known pre-existing relationship between Milner and Drake, and its similarities in plan to Milner’s previous house at 570 S. Hill Street, the Milner-Walker House is believed to be a Gilman J. Drake design as well. The Milner-Walker House is significant at the local level under Criterion C in the area of architecture as a representative example of a vernacular Greek Revival-style house in Griffin, likely designed by local builder and prominent citizen Gilman J. Drake.
The house exhibits Greek Revival stylistic characteristics, including symmetrical primary elevations, multi-paned rectangular transoms and sidelights surrounding its entrances; six-over-six double-hung windows; classical bargeboard; and simple, slender square columns supporting its entry porches. As defined in the statewide context Georgia’s Living Places: Historic Houses in Their Landscaped Settings, the Greek Revival style was the first architectural style to appear statewide in Georgia and was used from the 1840s through the 1860s. With its extant historic outbuildings and landscape elements that developed throughout the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries on minimally developed acreage, the property is one of limited residential properties in proximity to downtown Griffin that retain the more rural character of much of the area’s late nineteenth and early twentieth century development.
Georgia Industrial Home- Bibb County
The Georgia Industrial Home was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on December 9, 2019. The campus is located in a semi-rural area approximately five miles west of downtown Macon (Bibb County) at 4690 North Mumford Road. The property owner sponsored the nomination, and consultant Maryel Battin prepared the nomination materials.
Chartered on January 20, 1899 as a non-denominational home for indigent children, the Georgia Industrial Home property today includes a cluster of six buildings surrounded by substantial wooded and open acreage that formerly housed the facility’s agricultural operations. These buildings include the c.1906 symmetrical, two-story, brick, Neoclassical Revival-style Mumford Memorial Hall, which served as the administrative center, and five extant residential cottages built before 1963. These cottages replaced earlier cottages that formerly stood on the site. Exhibiting elements of the Colonial Revival style, they contain variations of bedrooms, bathrooms, a common or recreation area, a kitchen area, and office space. The Georgia Industrial Home is significant under Criterion C in the area of architecture as a good example of an institutional campus for an orphanage with supporting buildings such as Mumford Memorial Hall, which is a good example of Neoclassical Revival-style architecture, and residential cottages with Colonial Revival-style elements.
The Georgia Industrial Home was established during a time when orphanages were common, as societal awareness of the need for helping disadvantaged children increased. Although not the only orphanage in the area at the time, it appears to have been the only one not associated with either a religious or civic organization and strived to accept all children. The idea for the home was initiated by Reverend William E. Mumford, a Methodist minister who worked for several years to gather support from various public officials and organizations throughout Georgia, as well as neighboring states. A Board of Trustees, which included many of Macon’s prominent figures, was formed to govern the facility. The campus was designed to both house children in need and teach them an industrial trade through which they could earn a living in adulthood. Over the years, the facility included agricultural ventures like raising livestock, dairy farming, and pecan growing, as well as domestic skills including cooking and sewing. The use of cottages to house children in a home-like setting was unusual in the early 20th century, when most homes of this type provided dormitories in large institutional buildings. The Georgia Industrial Home appears to be one of the first facilities of its kind in the Macon area to house children in cottages prior to 1909 national recommendations. Although the facility’s original cottages were lost during the mid-20th century, the extant cottages represent the evolution of the campus during the period of significance and have perpetuated the original cottage plan. The Georgia Industrial Home is also significant under Criterion A in the area of social history for its open acceptance of children regardless of religious background, and its early use of residential cottages in an orphanage setting.
Dixville Historic District- Glynn County
The Dixville Historic District was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on December 9, 2019. The Dixville Historic District is an overwhelmingly residential neighborhood situated approximately ½-mile southeast of downtown Brunswick in Glynn County, Georgia. The district is bounded by the rear property lines along Walnut Avenue to the north; to the east by Palmetto Avenue; to the south by Prince Street; and to the west by Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard (formerly Cochran Avenue) and Stonewall Street. The nomination was sponsored by the Brunswick Downtown Development Authority, and nomination materials were prepared by Jaime Destefano of History, Incorporated.
The Dixville Historic District began development as early as c.1875 and continued developing primarily during the New South period (c.1880-1919), morphing into a cohesive African American community in the 1910s. The 41.3-acre district features a traditional grid pattern layout, with alleyways dividing the blocks into east and west sections. Lot sizes are relatively consistent, primarily ranging between 45 to 50 feet wide by 100 feet deep. Largely residential and featuring common house types of the time, typically of wood-frame construction with brick veneer, weatherboard, vinyl, or asbestos siding, the district additionally includes seven commercial/industrial resources, two religious facilities, and one park.
The Dixville Historic District is significant in the areas of black ethnic heritage and community planning and development as the only known, intact urban black community in Brunswick, Georgia, developed by both freed slaves and white laborers. It is a unique example of a community where lower-income, black and white families co-existed throughout the late 19th century and first half of the 20th century. By 1914, Dixville had transitioned into a predominantly black community housing a laboring population. It contains a variety of resources that document residential patterns, and to a lesser extent, commercial and industrial development of Brunswick’s black, working-class community from the late 19th century through the 1960s. In terms of community planning and development, it reflects a land use pattern frequently associated with Georgia’s cities whereby black and working-class settlement was relegated to under-utilized, low cost land along the periphery of downtown.
The district is also significant in the area of architecture for its collection of vernacular residential types as identified in Georgia’s Living Places: Historic Houses in Their Landscaped Settings, a statewide context. Types found include shotguns, central hallway, gabled wing cottages/houses, Georgian cottages/houses, hall-parlor cottages, and saddlebags as well as bungalows and ranch houses, representing the wide range of types popular between the late 19th to mid-20th century in Georgia. The variety of building types contributes to a broader understanding of building technologies, design, and materials popular among the working-class black population throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
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